Types of Hypertension.

There are two major types of hypertension

They are:

-Primary, Essential or Benign Hypertension

-Secondary Hypertension

What is Benign Hypertension?

The Primary, essential or benign hypertension is the commonest form of high blood pressure

It accounts for about 80  -  90 percent of all the diagnosed cases of high blood pressure around the world.

 The cause of the primary, benign or essential hypertension  (HTN)  is mostly unknown. It is common amongst those, whose parent(s) also has the disease.

 Even though, the cause of benign hypertension is unknown, there are some risk factors or rather certain circumstances that contribute to someone developing this kind of high blood pressure

This includes:

  • Race
  • Obesity
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Excessive use of salt
  • Smoking
  • Excessive use of alcohol
  • High cholesterol

What is Secondary Hypertension?

Secondary hypertension is the type of high blood pressure in which the actual CAUSE is known.

Secondary HTN,  accounts for about 5  -  10 percent, of all diagnosed cases of this disease.

As the name implies, it is "Secondary" to  a pre-existing medical condition... like:   

  •  Kidney disease
  • Thyroid or other endocrine disorders
  • Some medications... like ibuprofen, and amphetamines
  • Some contraceptives
  • Cushing syndrome
  • Tumors
  • Reno vascular Disease
  • Coarctation of the aorta
  • Some sleep disorders.

 Other Different Types of Hypertension

High blood pressure can also be classified according to its duration.

         The two main types according to duration are:

         Acute

         Chronic

What is Acute Hypertension?

Acute hypertension (HTN)  is a medical condition in which the blood pressure becomes very high within short period of time.

Characteristics of an Acute HTN   :

  • The blood pressure rose suddenly
  • The bp rise was steady over a short period of time
  • The rise of elevated bp is significant and can be fatal
  • Usually, with appropriate treatments and care this condition subsides after a short period of time
  • Usually people with Acute HTN are symptomatic... i.e., they have symptoms like... nose bleeds,ringing in the ears ( tinnitus), headaches... etc.

The treatment for acute HTN is usually very aggressive in nature to avert complications and further damage to the target organs like the eyes, kidneys... etc.

 What is Chronic Hypertension?

Chronic Hypertension is the direct opposite of acute HTN, in which the blood pressure is abnormally high, (i.e.,   over 140/90 mmHg)  over a period of time... it may be months or years.

Usually, the precursor of chronic high blood pressure is prehypertension

People with Chronic HTN are also generally referred to as being... hypertensive

Chronic HTN usually has no symptoms in majority of cases.

Someone once asked...   IS HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE A CHRONIC DISEASE?   Yes it is...!!!

 Classification of High Blood Pressure according to severity...

These types  are categorized in Stages of Hypertension

This is based on  the latest and newest (2014) JNC 8  and previous JNC 7 guidelines. According to the Eighth report of the Joint National Committee  (JNC)... in the United States of America.

It is very important for you to know, how high blood pressure are categorized where you live, and the medical advisory organization responsible for regulating it.

 STAGE 1  :   Systolic   140 - 159    and   Diastolic 90 - 99 mmHg


 STAGE 2  :   Systolic   > 160         and   Diastolic  >  100 mmHg

          Legend.... >    mean greater than

      What is Stage 3 Hypertension?

Stage 3 Hypertension  is phased out

 There is NO Stage 3 high blood pressure according to JNC 8   and   JNC 7.... Stage 3 hypertension, has been phased out since 2003.

 Other Kinds of Hypertension


High blood pressure classification according to location or when it occurred includes:

White coat hypertension.... which occurs when patient visits their physician

Occular   .......    which is elevated pressure in the eyes

Different types of elevated blood pressure  in / during pregnancy... like preeclampsia and gestational high blood pressure

Intra-cranial......  abnormally high pressures within the skull

Pulmonary  ........ abnormally high pressures within the blood vessels, in the lungs.

Venous   hypertension.

There are much more classifications... if any medical professional, (doctors, medical specialists, nurses etc.) uses any new name, term or classification, that you are not familiar with, or you have recently been diagnosed with high blood pressure, ask... to ensure, you know the specific kind you have, in order to obtain the accurate and appropriate care and management .. they will be more than happy to explain it all to you.

Hopefully, these explanations clarifies the different types of hypertension that affect the human body.

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